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Antenna Array refers to the set of several antennas that are connected and arranged in a regular structure to form a single antenna. An assembly of antenna elements with dimensions, spacing, and illumination sequence such that the fields for the individual elements are combined to produce a maximum intensity in a particular direction and minimum field intensities in other directions. The spatial relationship of the individual antennas contributes to the directivity of the antenna array. Antennas exhibit a specific radiation pattern. The overall radiation pattern of an array is determined by this array factor combined with the radiation pattern of the antenna element. The array factor is denoted by the symbol "AF".

Antenna Array Calculator

Formula

**AF = [ ( Sin (N×φ / 2 ) / ( Sin (φ / 2 ) ]**

**Where,**

φ = ( k×d×Cos θ) + β

k = 2π / λ

The advanced online Antenna Array Calculator is used to calculate the antenna array factor by applying the formula and putting the respective values. The overall radiation pattern changes when several antenna elements are combined in an array

**Example:**

Calculate the antenna array factor for the given details.

Polar Angle (θ) = 5

Wave Length (λ) = 10

Difference Phase of two Elements (β) = 15

Distance between each two Elements (d) = 20

Number of Elements in Array (N) = 2

**Solution:**

**Apply Formula:**

**AF = [ ( Sin (N×φ / 2 ) / ( Sin (φ / 2 ) ]**

k = 2π / λ

k = 2*3.14/10

k = 6.28/10

k = 0.628

φ = ( k×d×Cos θ) + β

φ = (0.628*20*cos5) +15

φ = (0.628*20*0.283) + 15

φ = 3.554 +15

φ = 18.554

AF = [ ( Sin (N×φ / 2 ) / ( Sin (φ / 2 ) ]

AF = [(sin(2*18.554/2) /(sin(18.554/2)]

AF = 0.7379222793164559

**Array Factor (AF) =** **0.7379222793164559**